In our last blog and reading of the year, the second part of the eleventh chapter of The Fabric of the Cosmos” was covered. In this part of The Fabric of the Cosmos, the book talks about a period of our universe’s life that the book calls the “fuzzy patch.” This fuzzy patch that the book is referring to is a period very early in our galaxy’s life that we are unable to observe. This period of time would give us vital information that would increase our understanding of the inflationary era greatly. The book says that this time period is characterized by extreme heat and extreme density.If we could observe our universe under these conditions, we could understand much more about our universe and potentially turn the theory of inflation into a fact of our universe.
In Chapter eleven of The Fabric of the Cosmos, the question, “How did galaxies form as a result of a completely uniform universe?” is answered. The book says that although our universe was uniform in the beginning of time, it was not completely and perfectly uniform. There was a tiny lumpiness that eventually grew larger and became the galaxies that we observe today. Buy why was there this tiny lumpiness before our galaxies were formed? The book attributes these tiny lumps in our early universe as being a result of quantum mechanics. The idea idea of uncertainty that comes along with quantum mechanics is what caused these disturbances, or as the book calls them, “jitters.” These jitters are still present and are constantly occurring in today’s galaxy. The book says that these minor jitters that occur in our galaxy could perhaps even result in other universes being created and give substance to the theory of parallel universes. I think that these jitters give the idea of parallel universes some substance and make this theory of parallel universe more believable.
In chapter ten of The Fabric of the Cosmos, the idea of inflation is first presented by Greene to the readers. He first explains the idea of inflation by comparing it to a frog perched on top of a plateau in a bowl. Just like he universe, the frog will quickly move away from the plateau and towards the bottom of the bowl. In comparison to the universe, the bottom of the bowl is equivalent to a lower energy state of the universe. The universe will naturally progress towards a state of less energy compared to the state that our universe was in before the Big Bang.
In an incredibly small amount of time the universe expanded from the size of a strand of DNA to the size of the Milky Way galaxy. The extreme increase in the expansion of pace was the exact moment that happened after the Big Bang. After the initial outburst, the expansion of space has slowed down to a more steady pace. Will the end of the universe be a reverse of the Big Bang? This section suggests that that could potentially be true, but I later in the book I learned that this is not true. What I later found out, extraordinarily, is that the universe is actually speeding up in its expansion.
Chapter nine of the Fabric if the Cosmos deals with the relationship between temperature and symmetry in our universe. The book states that the universe and cosmos in general has gone through phase transitions similar to those that happen when water turns in to ice. These changes that have happened as our universe gets larger are a result of the decreasing temperature in our universe and also account for a decrease in the symmetry of our universe. One of the most interesting topics of this chapter of the Fabric of the Cosmos was the idea of a graviton- an actual particle that portrays the characteristics if gravity. Is there a connection between gravity’s elusive particle,the graviton, and the unusual and generally weak force exhibited by gravity? I think that there is a definite possibility that there is considering the fact the gravity is the most mysterious of all forces to us.
The third section of chapter eight of The Fabric of the Cosmos deals with the relationship between space-time and the symmetry of the universe. When a person looks at something in the universe, he is looking through both space and time. because this observer is looking into the past, one would assume that we could look back far enough so that we could observe the Big Bang. This is not the case, in the books diagram, the closer we get to the Big Bang, the fuzzier the observation becomes. On the assumption that both space-time exists and the inflation of the universe originated at the Big Bang we can learn more about what actually did happen in the first moments of the universe. The universe must have exponentially expanded in the exact moment that the Big Bang occurred. The book says that instead of the Big Bang happening at one location, it must have happened everywhere. This concept is difficult for me to wrap my mind around because I would have thought that the Big Bang originated at a single point. However, this new thought that the Big Bang happened everywhere in the universe at once ames much more sense when completely thought through. This thought agrees with the inflation that we learned about in this chapter and also agrees with the current model of space-time that we have.
This second part of chapter eight in The Fabric of the Cosmos deals with the stretching of space. We know that the universe has been expanding ever since the Big Bang. When observing the universe and the speeds at which things are moving away from earth, it appears that the earth was the region from which the Big Bang started. The book explains this view by saying that the universe is stretching. Earth is not actually the point from which the Big Bang started, rather because of the way in which the universe is stretching, the universe appears to be expanding away from one’s point wherever that person is in the universe. The book compared this stretching mddl of the universe to an expanding balloon with pennies on it. This stretching of the universe further develops my concept of the symmetry of the universe. The universe seems more likely to be symmetric in this expanding model, with time being the only asymmetric part of the universe.
This section of The Fabric of the Cosmos dealt with the symmetry of space. The section calls everything that has existed in space since the big Bang symmetric. This symmetry is so common throughout our universe because symmetry is just a part of time. The book compares the symmetry of space to looking at a snowflake or other object from different angles. The snowflake would look the same for many of the angles that one looked an the snowflake, but not all the ways you look at the snowflake. The question becomes, when relating this theory to our universe, in which ways that we look is are universe symmetric compared to not symmetric? One of the ways that our universe is not completely symmetric is time. As the time moves forward in the universe, things change. If the universe were completely symmetric time would not even exist because there would be no way of recognizing that time is passing. Basically everything would be the same forever.